First Exploration with GNU/Linux
terminal, you will see the following prompt:
This prompt shows your username, host name, and the current working directory.
The username should be the same as you set during the installation.
The current working directory is
As you switching to another directory, the prompt will change as well.
You are going to code under this environment, so try to make friends with terminal!
Where is GUI?
Many of you always use operating system with GUI, such as Windows. But the terminal is completely with CLI (Command Line Interface). Have you wondered if there is something that you can do it in CLI, but can not in GUI? Have no idea? If you are asked to count how many lines of code you have coded during the 程序设计基础 course, what will you do?
If you stick to Visual Studio, you will never understand why
vim is called 编辑器之神.
If you stick to Windows, you will never know what is Unix Philosophy.
If you stick to GUI, you can only do what it can; but in CLI, it can do what you want.
One of the most important spirits of young people like you is to try new things to bade farewell to the past.
GUI wins when you do something requires high definition displaying, such as watching movies. But in our experiments, GUI is unnecessary. Here is an article discussing the comparision between GUI and CLI.
Now you can see how much disk space Debian occupies. Type the following command:
You can see that Debian is quite "slim".
Why Windows is quite "fat"?
Installing a Windows operating system usually requires much more disk space as well as memory. Can you figure out why the Debian operating system can be so "slim"?
To shut down the system, issue the following command:
However, you will receive an error message:
-bash: poweroff: command not found
This error is due to the property of the
poweroff command -
it is a system administration command.
Execute this command requires superuser privilege.
Why executing the "poweroff" command requires superuser privilege?
Can you provide a scene where bad thing will happen
poweroff command does not require superuser privilege?
Therefore, to shut down the system, you should first switch to the root account:
Enter the root password you set during the installation. You will see the prompt changes:
The last character is
#, instead of
$ before you executing
# is the indicator of root account.
poweroff command again, you will find that the command is executed successfully.
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